双语:深入学习贯彻习近平总书记外交思想 不断谱写中国特
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习近平外交思想

习近平外交思想

深入学习贯彻习近平总书记外交思想 不断谱写中国特色大国外交新篇章

Study and Implement General Secretary Xi Jinping’s Thought on Diplomacy in a Deep-going Way and Keep Writing New Chapters of Major-Country Diplomacy with Distinctive Chinese Features

 

杨洁篪

Yang Jiechi

 

党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央高瞻远瞩,纵览全局,深刻思考人类前途命运、中国和世界发展大势,紧紧围绕实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和实现中华民族伟大复兴中国梦,在保持对外大政方针稳定性和连续性的基础上,积极推进外交理论和实践创新,提出了一系列富有中国特色、体现时代精神、引领人类发展进步潮流的新理念新主张,形成并确立了习近平总书记外交思想。习近平总书记外交思想是党中央治国理政新理念新思想新战略在对外工作领域的集中体现,是中国特色社会主义理论体系的重要组成部分,极大丰富和发展了新中国外交思想和对外战略,对我国对外工作不断与时俱进、开拓创新具有极其重要而深远的指导意义。

 

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has, with great foresight and a comprehensive perspective, reflected deeply on the future and destiny of mankind as well as the general development trend of China and the whole world. Inspired by the Two Centenary Goals (namely to finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by the centenary of the CPC in 2021 and to turn China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious by the centenary of the People’s Republic of China in 2049) and the Chinese dream of national renewal, the Central Party Committee has broken new ground in both diplomatic theory and practice while maintaining consistency and continuity of China’s foreign policy. It has put forward new ideas and propositions with distinctive Chinese features that embody the call of our times and envision greater human progress. It is on this basis that General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy has been formed and established. General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy represents the CPC Central Committee’s new governing philosophy and strategy as they apply to diplomacy and is an integral part of the theories of socialism with distinctive Chinese features. It is a vision that has greatly enriched and taken forward the diplomatic thinking and strategy of New China and will have extremely important and far-reaching significance in steering China’s endeavor to keep pace with the times and make new progress in external work.

 

I

 

外交工作是党和国家工作全局的重要组成部分。在中国同世界关系发生深刻变化、中华民族进入伟大复兴关键阶段的历史背景下,习近平总书记外交思想用马克思主义立场、观点、方法指导解决中国外交面临的新课题,科学回答了什么是中国特色大国外交、如何开展中国特色大国外交等重大问题,明确了新形势下对外工作的指导思想、基本原则、主要任务、战略策略、机制保障,是一个内涵丰富、思想深邃、系统完整的科学理论体系。

 

Diplomacy is an essential part of the overall work of the Party and the State. At a time when China’s relations with the rest of the world are undergoing profound changes and the Chinese nation has entered a crucial stage of achieving renewal, General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy addresses new issues facing China’s diplomacy with a Marxist position, viewpoints and approaches. It answers key questions such as what is major-country diplomacy with distinctive Chinese features and how to conduct it, and defines the guiding philosophy, basic principles, key tasks, strategies and tactics, and institutional arrangements of conducting external work in a new era. General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy is a comprehensive and profound system of theories with rich connotations.

 

(一)明确新形势下对外工作的战略目标和重大使命。习近平总书记科学判断世界发展大势、我国所处历史方位,明确指出我们前所未有地靠近世界舞台中心,前所未有地接近实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,前所未有地具有实现这个目标的能力和信心。习近平总书记强调,我国外交要高举和平、发展、合作、共赢的旗帜,统筹国内国际两个大局,统筹发展安全两件大事,坚持走和平发展道路,坚定维护国家主权、安全、发展利益,维护和延长我国发展的重要战略机遇期,为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供有力保障。这些重要论述深刻阐述了中国外交的性质、目标和使命,是我们开展对外工作的根本指针和遵循。

 

1. Setting strategic goals and key missions for China’s external work in a new era. Based on his assessment of the global trend and the historical stage China has reached, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out in explicit terms that we are closer than ever to the center of the global stage, that we are closer than ever to fulfilling the Chinese dream of national renewal and that we are more confident and able than ever to realize this goal. General Secretary Xi Jinping has stressed the following: In pursuing diplomacy, China will stay committed to peace, development and win-win cooperation, take into account both domestic and international situation and ensure both development and security. We will stay committed to peaceful development, resolutely uphold sovereignty, security and development interests and preserve and extend the major period of strategic opportunity for China’s development so as to pave the way for achieving the Two Centenary Goals and fulfilling the Chinese dream of national renewal. These important statements which expound on the nature, objectives and missions of China’s diplomacy are a fundamental guide to the conduct of China’s external relations.

 

(二)坚定中国特色社会主义大国自信。习近平总书记反复强调,全党要坚定中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信,中国共产党人和中国人民完全有信心为人类对更好社会制度的探索提供中国方案。党的十八大以来,面对国际风云变幻,中国外交攻坚克难,开拓前行,取得了举世瞩目的伟大成就。事实证明,中国特色社会主义是我国对外工作的最大优势、最大特色、最大机遇。坚持“四个自信”,我们对外工作就有了根和魂,我国外交事业就有了前进动力和根本保证。

 

2. Boosting confidence in China as a major socialist country with distinctive Chinese features. General Secretary Xi Jinping has repeatedly emphasized that the whole Party should have firm confidence in the path, theories, system and culture of socialism with distinctive Chinese features. The Chinese Communists and Chinese people are fully confident of offering Chinese input to human exploration of better social systems. Since the 18th Party Congress, China has overcome many difficulties and challenges on the diplomatic front, forged ahead in a changing international environment, and made outstanding achievements. It has been proven that socialism with distinctive Chinese features represents the biggest strength, the most salient characteristic and the greatest opportunity of China’s external affairs. Having full confidence in the path, theories, system and culture of socialism with distinctive Chinese features underpins and drives China’s external work, and ensures its success.

 

(三)提出构建人类命运共同体的宏伟蓝图。习近平总书记本着“以天下为己任”的情怀,站在人类历史发展进程的高度,深刻洞察人类前途命运和时代发展趋势,提出了构建以合作共赢为核心的新型国际关系,齐心打造人类命运共同体的重要倡议,为人类社会实现共同发展、持续繁荣、长治久安指明了方向、绘制了蓝图,体现了中国将自身发展同世界共同发展相统一的全球视野、世界胸怀和大国担当,具有强大的吸引力、感召力和生命力。党的十八大以来,我国通过联合国、达沃斯世界经济论坛等重要多边舞台积极宣介构建人类命运共同体重大倡议,在对外交往中认真践行互利共赢理念,以实际行动不断推进构建人类命运共同体远景目标,赢得国际社会普遍赞誉。

 

3. Laying out a great vision of building a community of shared future for mankind. With a keen sense of responsibility for the whole mankind and with the historical advance of the human society in mind, General Secretary Xi Jinping shows a deep understanding of the trend of the times and future of mankind. On this basis, he calls for building a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation and jointly fostering a community of shared future for mankind. By pointing out the direction and drawing a blueprint for the international community to achieve enduring peace, common development and sustained prosperity, this call represents China’s global vision of pursuing both its own development and the development of the world, and demonstrates that China is ready to shoulder its responsibility as a major country. It therefore displays strong appeal, influence and vitality. Since the 18th Party Congress, China has championed this call at important multilateral forums like the United Nations and the World Economic Forum. In conducting external exchanges, China has followed the principle of seeking win-win outcomes and taken steps to achieve the long-term goal of building a community of shared future for mankind. China’s endeavors have thus been well received and supported by the international community.

 

(四)深化以发展全球伙伴关系为目标的全方位外交布局。习近平总书记以卓越的政治家和战略家的宏大视野和战略思维,谋划运筹对外工作全局,并身体力行遍访五大洲不同类型国家以及主要国际和区域合作组织。习近平总书记与各国领导人、各界人士和社会民众广泛深入接触和交流,讲述中外互利合作的典型事例和人民交往的友好佳话,强调各国和各国人民结伴而行、共创美好未来的重大意义。党的十八大以来,我们以周边和大国为重点,以发展中国家为基础,以多边为舞台,以深化务实合作、加强政治互信、夯实社会基础、完善机制建设为渠道,全面发展同各国友好合作,我国全方位、宽领域、多层次对外交往格局更加丰富完整,我们的“朋友圈”覆盖全球。

 

4. Pursuing all-round diplomacy to build a global network of partnerships. With the vision and strategic thinking of an outstanding statesman and strategist, General Secretary Xi Jinping has laid out an overarching plan for conducting China’s external work. To this end, he has made vigorous efforts himself to visit various countries across the five continents and major organizations of regional and international cooperation. During these visits, General Secretary Xi Jinping engaged fully with foreign leaders, public figures and ordinary people. By citing touching examples of China’s win-win cooperation with other countries and people-to-people friendship, he stressed the need for all countries and peoples to forge partnerships in pursuing a shared bright future. Since the 18th Party Congress, China has fully advanced its friendly relations with other countries, with neighboring countries and major countries being the priority of this pursuit, other developing countries serving as its foundation, and multilateral settings as its platform. We have deepened practical cooperation, enhanced mutual political trust, garnered popular support and improved institution building for this endeavor. China has boosted its all-round, wide-ranging and multi-tiered external exchanges, and China’s circle of friends has covered the whole world.

 

(五)确立以“一带一路”建设为统领的对外开放新格局。习近平总书记准确把握我国对外开放内外环境新变化,提出建设“一带一路”的重大倡议,坚定不移推进新一轮高水平对外开放,欢迎各国分享中国发展机遇,为推动世界发展注入强大动力。4年来,共建“一带一路”逐渐从倡议变为行动,从理念转化为实践,成为开放包容的国际合作平台和各方普遍欢迎的全球公共产品,100多个国家和国际组织积极支持和参与,一大批有影响力的标志性项目顺利落地,我国与许多国家发展战略顺利对接,基础设施互联互通水平快速提升。不久前我国成功举办“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛,取得丰硕成果,进一步形成了各方携手共建“一带一路”的良好局面。

 

5. Pursuing a new round of opening-up featuring the Belt and Road Initiative. Based on a keen appreciation of new dynamics in China’s internal and external environment, General Secretary Xi Jinping put forward the Belt and Road Initiative (the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road). This initiative aims to further advance China’s opening-up and share China’s development opportunities with other countries, and it will inject strong impetus into global development. Over the past four years since it was launched, the Belt and Road Initiative has been translated into action and delivered concrete outcomes. As a matter of fact, it has developed into an open and inclusive platform of international cooperation and a widely-welcomed public good for the global community. Over 100 countries and international organizations have expressed support for or participated in the initiative, and many landmark projects with wide impact have been launched. The complementarity between China’s development strategy and those of many other countries has been enhanced and fast progress has been made in scaling up infrastructural connectivity. China has recently hosted a successful and productive Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, creating more momentum for jointly pursuing the Belt and Road Initiative.

 

(六)展现捍卫国家主权安全利益的决心和意志。习近平总书记明确指出,中国坚持走和平发展道路,不觊觎他国权益,但决不放弃我们的正当权益;任何外国不要指望我们会拿自己的核心利益做交易,不要指望我们会吞下损害我国主权、安全、发展利益的苦果。我们是这样说的,也是这样做的。党的十八大以来,我们在台湾、南海等一系列涉及我国重大核心利益的问题上,亮明立场,划出底线,敢于斗争,有力捍卫了我国核心利益和正当权益,极大振奋了党心军心民心,也赢得了国际社会的广泛尊重。

 

6. Demonstrating China’s resolve to uphold its sovereignty and security interests. General Secretary Xi Jinping has unequivocally stated that China stays committed to peaceful development. China does not covet the rights and interests of other countries. Meanwhile, it will never give up its legitimate rights and interests. No country should ever expect China to trade off its core interests or swallow the bitter fruit that undermines its sovereignty, security and development interests. This is what we say, and also what we do. Since the 18th Party Congress, we have particularly staked out our positions on Taiwan, the South China Sea and other issues concerning China’s major core interests. We have drawn a clear line of what is unacceptable, and acted forcefully to defend our core interests as well as legitimate rights. All this has greatly boosted the morale of the Party, the military and the general public and won international respect.

 

(七)创新全球治理理念和实践。习近平总书记深入发掘中华文化中独特的治理理念和智慧同当今时代的共鸣点,突出中国人民和世界人民的共同意愿,针对全球治理面临的重大现实问题和挑战,提出了全球治理观、新安全观、新发展观、正确义利观、全球化观等一系列新理念新主张,推动建立更加公正合理、普惠均衡的全球治理体系。党的十八大以来,我们通过主办北京亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议、二十国集团领导人杭州峰会以及出席一系列重大多边外交活动,积极参与和引领全球治理进程,为改革完善全球治理体系、推动建立更加公正合理的国际秩序讲好中国故事、贡献中国智慧、提出中国方案。

 

7. Exploring new approach to and practice of global governance. General Secretary Xi Jinping has tapped into the rich heritage of governance philosophy and wisdom unique to Chinese culture that is relevant today and given full expression to the shared aspirations of both the Chinese people and the people around the world. In response to major issues and challenges confronting global governance, General Secretary Xi Jinping has put forth a series of new propositions on global governance, security, development, justice, interests and globalization which are aimed at promoting a global governance system that is fairer, more equitable, inclusive and balanced. Since the 18th Party Congress, China has hosted the 2014 APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting in Beijing and the 2016 G20 Summit in Hangzhou, and taken part in many major multilateral diplomatic events. Through such active participation to help steer the global governance process, China has offered its vision and input for reforming and improving the global governance system and establishing a fairer and more equitable international order.

 

(八)坚持党中央统筹对外工作大局。习近平总书记强调指出,办好中国的事情,关键在党。中国共产党的领导,既是中国特色社会主义的最本质特征,也是最大优势,更是我们应对各种内外复杂形势的根本保障。党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央总揽对外工作全局,进一步强化了中央外事工作领导小组职能,召开周边外交工作座谈会和中央外事工作会议,加强对外工作顶层设计、战略谋划和统筹协调,制定完善重大外事管理规定,推进实施对外工作体制机制改革,统领各方协同发力,为对外工作不断攻坚克难、胜利前行提供了强大政治保障。

 

8. Exercising overall leadership by the Central Party Committee over China’s external work. General Secretary Xi Jinping has stressed that the Party’s role is central to running China’s affairs well. The leadership by the Communist Party of China is both the defining feature and the biggest strength of socialism with Chinese characteristics. What is more, such leadership enables us to cope with internal and external challenges. Since the 18th Party Congress, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has exercised overall leadership over the conduct of China’s external work. It has further enhanced the role of the Central Foreign Affairs Leading Group and convened a meeting on neighborhood diplomacy and a central conference on work relating to foreign affairs to improve top-level design, strategic planning and coordination on external affairs. It has adopted and improved major regulations on foreign affairs management, advanced institutional reforms on external work and coordinated efforts of various departments and regions to form synergy. All these endeavors have provided powerful political support for us to overcome difficulties and forge ahead in external work.

II

 

习近平总书记外交思想是以习近平同志为核心的党中央治国理政新理念新思想新战略的重要组成部分,是新形势下我国对外工作的强大理论武器和行动指南。深入学习领会习近平总书记外交思想,是外交外事战线的重要政治任务,对系统总结党的十八大以来对外工作成就经验、不断开创对外工作新局面具有极其重要的意义。习近平总书记外交思想对党和国家对外工作全局作了全面系统论述,涵盖十分广泛、内容十分丰富、思想十分深刻。我们应当着力学习领会以下四个方面。

 

General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy is an important component of the new governance philosophy and strategies developed by the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core. It provides a solid theoretical foundation for and guidance to conducting China’s diplomacy in the new era. To study and achieve a deep understanding of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy is an important political task for all of us in conducting China’s foreign affairs and diplomacy. It is also a very important guide to us in conducting a systematic review of the achievements and experience of China’s external work since the 18th Party Congress and in making new progress in external affairs. Wide-ranging in coverage, rich and profound in connotation, General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy serves as a comprehensive and systematic guidance to the external work of the Party and the State. We should focus on the following four aspects in our efforts to gain a deep understanding of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy:

 

(一)要深刻领会习近平总书记外交思想的使命意识。习近平总书记以高度的历史使命感和非凡的政治气魄,引领走好我们这一代人的长征路,向着实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦不断前行。习近平总书记以大国领袖的责任担当,深入思考“建设一个什么样的世界、如何建设这个世界”等关乎人类前途命运的重大课题,勇于提供中国方案、作出中国贡献。党的十八大以来,中国本着力所能及的原则积极承担更多国际责任和义务,深入参与国际维和行动,合力应对气候变化等全球性挑战和重大地区热点问题,主动提供以“一带一路”为代表的全球公共产品,为促进世界和平与发展事业作出了重大积极贡献。

 

1. We should have a keen appreciation of the sense of mission underlying General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy. Demonstrating a strong sense of historical mission and extraordinary political vision, General Secretary Xi Jinping has led us on the Long March of our generation toward the Two Centenary Goals and the realization of the Chinese dream of national renewal. General Secretary Xi Jinping, bearing in mind the responsibility of the leader of a big country, has reflected deeply on the critical issue of what kind of a world we should build and how to build it, an issue that concerns the future of mankind. He has offered China’s contribution and input to this endeavor. Since the 18th Party Congress, China has, as its capability permits, undertaken more international responsibilities and obligations. It has fully participated in international peacekeeping missions, played its part in meeting global challenges such as climate change and addressing major regional hotspot issues, and offered global public goods, particularly in the form of the Belt and Road Initiative. China has thus made an important contribution to advancing world peace and development.

 

(二)要深刻领会习近平总书记外交思想的时代精神。习近平总书记洞察世界各国相互依存日益紧密的发展趋势,顺应并引领和平、发展、合作、共赢的时代潮流,提出构建新型国际关系、打造人类命运共同体等重要理念,呼吁推进开放、包容、普惠、平衡、共赢的经济全球化,建立客观反映国际力量对比现实的全球治理体系,为人类破解和平赤字、发展赤字、治理赤字等难题指明了方向和路径。习近平总书记外交思想是在中国同世界关系发生历史性变化的背景下形成和发展的,具有鲜明的时代特征和重大的现实与历史意义。

 

2. We should have a keen appreciation of the profound significance of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy to our times. With an incisive grasp of the growing interdependence among countries and recognizing the need to adapt to and sustain the trend of peace, development and win-win cooperation in our times, General Secretary Xi Jinping has set forth the important vision of building a new type of international relations and a community of shared future for mankind. He calls for making economic globalization a more open, inclusive and balanced process that delivers win-win outcomes to all. He also calls for building a global governance system that reflects well the changing reality of balance of forces in the world. His vision has thus set the direction and pathways to address thorny issues facing mankind such as deficit in peace, development and governance. General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy, formed and developed as China’s relationship with the world is going through historic changes, bears a distinctive feature of our times and has great current and historical significance.

 

(三)要深刻领会习近平总书记外交思想的创新思维。习近平总书记牢牢把握改革开放是当代中国最鲜明的特色,坚持把马克思主义基本原理同当代中国实际紧密结合,勇于推进理论创新、实践创新。习近平总书记外交思想继往开来,既蕴含着中华优秀传统文化和哲学智慧,又丰富和发展了新中国外交思想和外交战略,开创了中国特色大国外交理论体系。习近平总书记把中国发展和世界共同发展有机结合,从古代丝绸之路汲取营养,创造性提出“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”倡议,为中国和世界共享发展机遇创建了新平台,为国际合作开辟了新模式。习近平总书记提出的正确义利观、新安全观、全球治理观等新理念,为世界各国摒弃冷战思维、超越零和博弈,实现和平共处、互利共赢提供了思想引领。

 

3. We should have a keen appreciation of the spirit of innovation embodied in General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy. General Secretary Xi Jinping views reform and opening-up as the defining feature of contemporary China. He has integrated the underlying principles of Marxism with the realities of present-day China, and he is bold in breaking new ground in both theory and practice. General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy builds on past success and is forward-looking in nature. Having drawn on China’s fine cultural and philosophical tradition, it has enriched and taken forward the diplomatic thinking and strategy of New China, thus creating a system of theories of major-country diplomacy with distinctive Chinese features. Bearing in mind both China’s own development and the world’s common development and drawing inspiration from the ancient Silk Road, General Secretary Xi Jinping creatively put forward the Initiative of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, thus building a new platform for China to share development opportunities with the world and developing a new model for international cooperation. The new thinking articulated by General Secretary Xi Jinping, such as upholding justice and pursuing shared interests, a new vision of security and a new vision of global governance, has provided theoretical guidance for countries to reject the Cold War mentality and zero-sum game in favor of peaceful co-existence and win-win cooperation.

 

(四)要深刻领会习近平总书记外交思想的战略智慧。习近平总书记始终坚持站在战略高度,观大势、谋大局,深刻辨析中国外部环境中的机遇和挑战,坚持统筹国内国际两个大局,统筹发展安全两件大事,通盘谋划、整体推进大国、周边、发展中国家及多边合作等对外工作。习近平总书记提出一整套外交战略策略指导原则,既重视顶层设计和战略谋划,也注重实际操作和策略运筹,善于牵住牛鼻子,善于弹好钢琴,实现了原则的坚定性和策略的灵活性的有机结合。在习近平总书记外交思想指引下,中国特色大国外交更加自信、更加鲜明地展示出大国特色、大国风格、大国气度,使我国在复杂多变的国际格局中牢牢占据战略主动地位。

 

4. We should have a keen appreciation of the strategic wisdom underpinning General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy. General Secretary Xi Jinping has always observed the prevailing trend in a strategic context and made strategic decisions accordingly. He has made a profound analysis of external opportunities and challenges facing China, taken into account both China’s domestic and international interests, and attached importance to both development and security. On this basis, he has advanced China’s external work in a well-planned and coordinated way on various fronts, such as relations with other major countries, the neighboring countries and other developing countries as well as multilateral diplomacy. General Secretary Xi Jinping has put forth a whole range of principles guiding China’s diplomatic strategy and policies. He places high importance not just on top-level designing and strategic planning, but also on operations and policy moves. He is thus able to address core issues like pulling an ox by its nose and ensure good coordination among various fronts as a good pianist does with ten fingers, achieving a high degree of balance between firm commitment to principles and appropriate flexibility in policy implementation. Guided by General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy, China has become more confident in pursuing major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics, fully demonstrating its distinctive vision, style and way of conduct as a major country. As a result, China has secured a favorable strategic position in the complex and fluid international arena.

 

我们要充分认识习近平总书记外交思想的重大政治意义、理论意义、实践意义和方法论意义,以高度的使命感和责任感、自觉性和坚定性,认真、系统、深入学习贯彻,着力深刻领会把握思想精髓和核心要义,将其转化为指导实践、推动工作、不断推进中国特色大国外交的强大动力。

 

We should fully appreciate the great political, theoretical, practical and methodological significance of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy. We should, with a keen sense of mission, responsibility, purpose and commitment, work hard to study this thinking and implement it earnestly, systematically and thoroughly. We should strive to gain a deep understanding of the essence and core of this thinking, so that it will become a powerful source of inspiration and strength that guides us in conducting major-country diplomacy with distinctive Chinese features.

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